Nobel Prize Winner
Classic medical research Nobel Prizes
To rejuvenate and heal the body cells of a chosen few, medicine is on the verge of a major breakthrough in the next 20 years.
Nobel Laureates, dealing with the influence of cells and genes:
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry goes to Joachim Frank, Jacques Dubochet and Richard Henderson for the development of "Cryoelectronic Microscopy for the high-resolution structural determination of biomolecules in solution and thus for the first time a simplified and improved visualization of proteins, DNA molecules, viruses and bacteria".
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry goes to Tomas Lindahl, Paul Modrich and Aziz Sancar, who have investigated how damaged DNA can be repaired to preserve genetic material.
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry, which deals with the influence of cells and genes, is awarded to Stefan Hell, Eric Betzig and William Moerner for the invention of the "nanoscope". This made it possible to achieve resolutions beyond the Abbe limit.
Thomas Südhof, James Rothman and Randy Schekman receive the Nobel Prize. The three scientists are honored for their findings on transport systems in cells. Defects in the transport system are the basis for immune diseases, diabetes, tetanus and endocrine system disorders, as well as nerve conduction and many other diseases.
He received the Nobel Prize from John Gurdon (Great Britain) and Shinya Yamanaka (Japan). Their research showed: the body's own mature cells can be restored to their previous state and then transformed into desired, specialized, younger and healthier own cells, for example, nerve, heart and kidney cells.
Bruce Beutler (USA) and Jules Hoffmann (France) receive the Nobel Prize for their work on innate defence system warning. Ralph Steinman, Canada, discovered cells that activate the acquired immune system.
Elizabeth Blackburn, Carol Greider and Jack Szostak (all from the USA) receive the Nobel Prize for their research on cellular ageing. The scientists discovered and characterized the enzyme telomerase, which is important for the stability of the human genome.
Nobel Prize for Mario R. Capecchi , Oliver Smithies (both USA) and Sir Martin J. Evans (UK) for a genetic technique to create human disease in experimental mice.
Andrew Z. Fire and Craig C. Mello received the Nobel Prize for a technique that can be used to silence genes specifically..
Sydney Brenner (Great Britain), H. Robert Horvitz (USA) and John E. Sulston (Great Britain) were awarded a Nobel Prize for the research of programmatic excellence (Apoptose).
Nobel Prize for Leland H. Hartwell (USA), Sir Paul M. Nurse (Great Britain) and R. Timothy Hunt (Great Britain) for expertise in the field of cell research.
Arvid Carlsson (Schweden), Paul Greengard (USA) and Eric Kandel (USA) for their developments in signal processing in the Nervensystem.
Günter Blobel (USA) receives the Nobel Prize for his work on the transport of proteins in the cell. Since then, cell research has gained more public importance.